Swimming pool ozone machine generator theory, secondary water disinfectant protocol, check valve, injector, pump performance. Additional negative factors effect pool water sanitation include; undersized pump, dirty filter, garden runoff, leaf catchers, valves causing water flow restrictions.
Ozone Applications Information
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Pool Ozone Machine Generator Management, Protocol, Theory
Swimming pool ozone machine generators are designed to produce ozone at adequate levels of ozone to keep your pool bacteria and virus free. In many instances, no additional sanitizer is required.
Pools however differ in sizes, type and location. As results, the ozone demand may be different for different pools and variants of the standard protocol may have to be applied. Ozone is the gas produced from oxygen in an ozone generator. It is widely accepted that ozone is one of the most potent sanitizers. Ozone can be an extremely effective method of maintaining your pool provided certain care is taken.
Protocol for total pool management is as follows.
1. Use of ozone as the primary disinfectant.
2. Use of sodium bromide as the secondary stable disinfectant. This is the natural constituent to sea water which can not act on its own. Needs the ozone to activate it.
3. Use of hydrogen peroxide for super oxidizing the pool.
4. Use of an algaecide if necessary.
In an ozone treated pool, ozone activates sodium bromide to hypobromous acid.
Ozone (O3) +Sodium Bromide equals Hypobromous Acid.
Hypobromous acid is one powerful bactericide and is more powerful species than chlorine and more stable than Ozone.
Hypobromous Acid +Organics equals Sodium bromide.
Cycle is set up with the ozonation system in which the sodium bromide goes from the bromide to the hypobromous acid and then back to the bromide. In this way the bromide losses are minimized and one only has to add sodium bromide once each 6 month period to compensate for losses from backwashing.
Brief history spa pool ozone generator machine use.
Common problem that occurs in the spa and pool water ozone machine generator is water entry into the dielectric backwards through the injector. If you consider that the dielectric is subjected to between 5 to 10kV and is at elevated temperatures, destruction of the generator is imminent either through high voltage short circuit or through thermal shock.
Use of non-return valves or check valves
Check valves are simple and effective devices under the right conditions. Consider this: If you have high pressure behind the check valve, one can easily open the diaphragm using the available pressure that will shut when the pressure drops. One can use heavy duty spring loaded check valve.
In the common spa and pool environment one does not have the luxury of high pressure. One relies on the vacuum created by the injector primarily to open the check valve. Therefore, the valve has to have an extremely low cracking pressure. By axiom, this means an extremely low sealing pressure. Leakage through the seal occurs and water enters the dielectric. Also, there is always some point at which the pressure on both sides of the seal is equal. NRVE (non-return valve equilibrium). The gateway for the entry of water.
How is NRVE achieved?
1. When the pump and injector are in normal operating mode, large pressure difference is created commonly referred to as vacuum. When the pump stops, there is the point where NRVE is achieved. This will happen each time the pump stops. 2. As the filter becomes more laden with filtered matter, the pressure on the discharge of the injector increases and this could eventually cause the NRVE to be reached. 3. Kids playing in pools (adults too) sometimes play with the pressure from the return discharge. This would cause NRVE to be reached.
How Is This Overcome?
The manufacture does not lose any sleep worrying about water entering the ozone machine dielectric. In fact they expect that it will. However, the electronics are designed to detect water or critical moisture levels and goes into shutdown mode. When vacuum has been re-established the moisture is evacuated and the units senses this and restarts automatically.
Dielectric material is made to withstand thermal shocks and is pre-stressed on assembly. So confident of the dielectric system that they guarantee it for 1 year. If it should fail within that period as results of moisture ingress, they will fix it-free.
Do they still suggest the use of check valves? The installation of generators should be above the water level. Where this is not possible, the check valve should be used to prevent back siphoning.
Importance of correct injector performance.
Since ozone is produced in the gaseous molecule it has to be transferred into the water via venturi or injector. Minimum flow rate of water is required through the injector which results in suction being created at the injector side port. Rate of air being drawn into the side port if the measure of the injector performance. Greater the air flow, the better the injector is performing. Rate of suction is dependant on flow, injector inlet pressure and injector outlet pressure. These three factors have to be correct in order to ensure correct suction and consequently the correct amount of ozone being transferred into your pool.
Bottom line is the generator can produce as much ozone as possible but if its not being effectively transferred into the water it is of little use. Slight variations in inlet flow and pressure has minor effect on the injector performance but slight variations in the injector outlet pressure results in major variations on injector performance. In order for ozone to be effective in any pool environment certain protocols MUST be followed which are summarized here.
1. The ozone machine generator must be correctly sized for the pool.
2. There must be at least 1 kg per 60,000 liter of water of sodium bromide in the pool every 6 to 8 months.
3. For better results drain the pool and refill with fresh water.
Negative factors that effect ozone machine generator, injector performance.
1. Poor pump performance or undersized pump.
2. Dirty filter.
3. Certain types of pool cleaners which restrict water flow.
4. Dirty wire baskets or pump baskets which restricts water flow.
5. Any valves or other restrictions after the injector.
6. Leaf catcher.
7. Aim flow valve. Remove the ball from the aim flow.
Proper pH and Alkalinity
Ozone will work well over the wide pH range of 6 to 9. Plaster surfaces leach calcium into the water and this tends to increase the pH level.
Ozone itself has no effect on the pH but other factors can such as atmospheric conditions, acid rain, sun tan oils, urinating in the water can raise acidity. Regular baking soda can be used to raise alkalinity. If pH is than 7.2 add 3-4 lbs. per 10,000 gallons. If alkalinity is above 100ppm do not add baking soda.