Ozone Regulations Assembly Bill 2276. Chemical smog pollution main cause, nitrogen dioxide oxidant effects EPA air quality levels, health.
With regrets Applied Ozone Systems has to inform the people of CA that their elected officials thru lies and deception have brainwashed the Governor into signing this new bill into law that goes into effect on or before December 31, 2008. This insidious bill AB 2276 infringes upon our Constitutional Rights and the freedom of what one does or electrical appliances used in the privacy of their own home or business. It may also turn law abiding citizens into common criminals.
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Assembly Bill AB 2276 Regulates Ozone Generators Air Purifier Sales
CA Assembly Bill 2276 (2006, Pavley), directs the Air Resource Board (ARB) to develop and adopt a regulation to limit the ozone emitted from indoor air cleaning devices in order to protect public health. The regulations would include emissions standards for ozone from air cleaning devices; a ban on the sale of higher emitting devices and requirements for public disclosure of information on ozone levels emitted from air cleaning devices. ARB staff have scheduled a workshop for December 13, 2006 to discuss requirements of AB 2276 and obtain input from interested stakeholders and members of the public on the development of the regulation.
They say no government agency has clear authority to control ozone emissions from devices but this law gives the CA Air Resources Board to regulate the amount of ozone the air purifiers produce. They claim the amount of ozone the air purifiers produce is 3 times higher than the state outdoor air quality standard that results in levels that are equal to a stage 1 smog alert. This information was stated in the Consumer Reports negative article on ozone air purifiers where they had the monitor reading the concentrations directly where the air comes out with the highest reading possible instead of the room concentration levels. The current standard is 90 parts per billion or 0.09ppm, which is equal to 90 drops in 12,000 gallons of water.
You can read the bill in PDF format.
Lets look at some other possibilities and who started this misinformation that may explain why this has happened.
In 1975 when the CA Air Resources Board set the new standard as ozone being the main oxidant in smog and prior to this there was a lot of negative information on ozone from the government trying to suppress the truth about ozone. This action was mainly done in the 1960's to push chlorine for purifying water instead of using ozone. Medical ozone applications were a great threat to the medical and pharmaceutical companies. So now again they come up with their scientific evidence to promote ozone as smog. Anyone can do testing or research and make the results come out as good or bad, just like the pharmaceutical companies do to make promote their drugs.
By measuring pollutants in air, scientists were uncertain about which of the photochemical oxidants, such as ozone or nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons, photochemical aerosols and possible other unknown oxidants, were associated with certain health effects caused by smog. Back then the term Oxidant referred to a group of chemicals that result from chemical reactions occurring in the presence of ultraviolet light. For the purpose of setting air quality standards in CA, oxidant was defined as an oxidizing chemical that reacts with a reagent that cannot be oxidized by the oxygen (O2) molecule contained in air. But when you add the third molecule (O3) ozone is one of the most powerful natural oxidants there is.
Pollution is defined as noxious chemicals or refuse that impairs purity. The two main sources of pollution are from automobiles and industry. The offensive compounds with bad odors cause respiratory problems and runny eyes. The most damaging radicals are nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid, carbonic acid and carbon monoxide. The largest source of contamination that no one seems to mention is chlorine. Chlorinated compounds are among the largest polluter in the outside air and where ever the chlorinated compounds are used in they will evaporate into the atmosphere.
Scientists found that health effects such as eye irritation, visibility effects and crop damage correlated well with photochemical oxidants measured as a group by ARB's potassium iodide method. The EPA and Air Resources Board has been using ozone monitors in major cities to measure smog and pollutant levels for some time now. Most ozone monitor manufactures will tell you not to operate the sensor or monitor and rely on the readings where there is high levels of chlorine or other halogen compounds, sulfur compounds, strong volatile organic compounds from cleaning solvent vapors, paint thinners, dry cleaning fluids, gasoline vapors, or hydrocarbons, urine or ammonia compounds, acid gases like sulfuric and nitric acid fumes. If the EPA and the Air Resources Board truly wanted accurate pollutant levels they should use a VOC sensor instead of using ozone sensors where there is no ozone that give false readings. Most ozone sensors will give a higher reading with most all strong oxidants. The UV absorption method at 254 nm is more specific to ozone.
Some of the health effects of ozone in higher concentrations like burning your eyes and coughing are similar to those of other oxidants that make up smog. But to make others believe their lies they had to come up with some new scientific research to prove their point using tax payer dollars. There was testing done on rats and crops at high concentrations to show the damage. If they had used low natural concentrations they would have seen how the crops flourished. All plants create ozone thru photosynthesis and it is naturally produced in humans as well.
History of Ozone and Oxidant Ambient Air Quality Standards
Go to the following page and print it out because you will need it to see what we are referring too.
The Air Resources Board (ARB) and previous health agencies have been involved in setting ambient air quality standards since the 1950's. In the early years, Calif. agencies set standards for oxidant, a term describing a mixture of known and unknown oxidizing air pollutants. As there newly created scientific information emerged over the years, it became clear (in there eyes only) that ozone was the primary cause of respiratory health effects within the oxidant class.
The first ambient outdoor air quality standard in CA was set in the Los Angeles area because of the severity of smog there. The Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District adopted a three-stage alert system for oxidants and three other pollutants in June of 1955. This system was designed to prevent the possibility of an air pollution catastrophe. In 1959, the CA Legislature authorized the Dept of Public Health (DPH) to set statewide ambient air standards for Calif. During the same year they adopted standards for six air pollutants, including a one hour oxidant standard of 0.15 parts per million.
The Air Resources Board (ARB) was formed in 1967 and assumed the responsibility of setting ambient air quality standards for oxidant and other air pollutants. Over successive years, the ARB adopted increasingly health protective standards for oxidant, and then ozone. In 1969, the ARB adopted a one-hour oxidant standard of 0.1ppm, but revised it to 0.10ppm the following year, adding a decimal place. This change allowed for a more health protective standard. Also in 1970, the ARB analyzed available data and determined that the then existing oxidant standard was below the threshold associated with aggravation of respiratory disease, establishing the standard at a level below which the principal health effects would occur. In 1975, ARB set a standard specifically for ozone (instead of total oxidant), using the ultraviolet photometry chemical analysis method which is specific for ozone. Prior to 1975 they used the neutral buffered potassium iodide method that had a few faults. In 1988, ARB reduced the level of the standard to 0.09ppm.
In the years before the ARB was formed, an ambient air quality standard was set without a margin of safety. In other words, an air quality standard was set at the lowest concentration of a pollutant at which harmful health effects had been observed and reported (DPH, 19591). In the present day, air quality standards define clean air, and represent the maximum amount of a pollutant that can be present in outdoor air without harm to the publics health. Air quality standards are designed to provide a margin of safety for the most sensitive members of the public.
In June of 1955, the Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District established a three-stage smog alert system for four air pollutants, including ozone. This system was designed to prevent a possible air pollution disaster in Los Angeles County. First Alert 0.5ppm over 2 hours (Relatively Safe) / Second Alert 1.0ppm (Harmful) / Third Alert 1.5ppm (Dangerous).
The owner of Applied Ozone Systems can relate to the high smog in the mid and late 1950s in Los Angeles and your eyes burned continually throughout the day. Back then the smog was so thick it was like a fog and does not remember the smog smelling like ozone but admits there could have been some ozone at ground level because of all the electric trolley cars. The trolley cars ran down the middle of the main street with metal poles protruding from the top that touched the high voltage wires to run the electric motors and every now and then you could see the sparks. The sparking will produce some ozone in the presence of oxygen. Maybe this is how they originally got the idea to put the blame on ozone but this is a little extreme. But take into consideration ozone is a colorless gas that you can not see but in the outer atmosphere it makes the sky blue.
Back when they had these high pollution levels of smog the Dept of Health and the Air Resources Board were probably under pressure to fix the air pollution problem as well as possible law suites from the health problems created. Car and diesel fuel had lead and may not have been as refined as it is today with the additives, catalytic converters, and running the engines hotter to burn cleaner with less emissions. The technology was just not available then. If ozone was the cause why was there so much done to blend new fuels and other changes by the auto manufactures to help reduce the smog levels in later years? Because making changes slowly would not hurt the economy.
In 1970, the EPA was established in response to the growing public demand for cleaner water, air and land. Prior to the establishment of the EPA, the federal government was not structured to make a coordinated attack on the pollutants that harm human health and degrade the environment. The EPA was assigned the daunting task of repairing the damage already done to the natural environment and to establish new criteria to guide Americans in making a cleaner environment a reality.
On October 22, 1991, the Amer. Lung Association and other plaintiffs or record filed suit to compel the EPA to complete its review of the criteria and standards for ozone. This action is to update the 1986 Criteria Document and its Supplement (57 FR38832). With the latest and more negative information produced the ALA succeeded in lowering the ozone standards. The Amer. Lung Association is one of the main sponsors to AB 2276. One might ask how much money assembly woman Fran Pavley and others received for their efforts.
EPA statements: What Causes Bad Ozone? Ground-level or bad ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. Emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents are some of the major sources of NOx and VOC. NOx, is the generic term for all that contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts.
Applied Ozone comments: The percentage of gases included in the natural dry air we breath are Nitrogen, (N2) is 78.08 percent. Oxygen (O2) is 20.95 percent. Argon (Ar) is 0.93 percent. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is 0.033 percent. Neon, (Ne) is 0.0018 percent. Helium, (He) is 0.00052 percent. Methane, (CH4) is 0.0002 percent. Krypton, (Kr is 0.00011 percent. Nitrogen oxide or nitrous oxide, (N2O) is 0.00005 percent. Hydrogen, (H2) is 0.00005 percent. Since nitrogen and oxygen are the most common here they will show up in a lot of other chemical formulas including O3.
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is the main ingredient in the formation of ground-level smog. Nitrogen dioxide is a reddish-brown gas with a pungent and irritating smell that is produced by combustion or heat in buses, cars, truck engines from the gasoline and diesel fuel. Any type of fossil fuel burned from kerosene heaters, un-vented gas stoves and heaters, power generation, primary metal production, trash incineration, welding, tobacco smoke and other sources. The nitrogen dioxide emissions don't just flow out of the exhaust tailpipes during the day they flow during the night, all 24 hours of the day.
Health effects associated with nitrogen dioxide and other nitrogen compounds may include eye, nose, respiratory and throat irritation. May also result in abdominal pain, coughing, difficulty in breathing, fatigue, headache, and nausea. Nitrogen dioxide acts mainly as an irritant affecting the mucosa of the eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract. Extremely high-dose exposure may result in pulmonary edema and diffuse lung injury. Continued exposure after several weeks; can contribute to the development of acute or chronic bronchitis, scarring of the lungs, rapid shallow breathing, rapid heartbeat and inadequate oxygen flow. Low-level exposure may cause increased bronchial reactivity in some asthmatics, decreased lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and increased risk of respiratory infections, especially in young children.
Nitric acid is highly corrosive and toxic and produced by mixing nitrogen dioxide with water in the presence of oxygen or air to oxidize the nitrous acid also produced by the reaction. It transforms in the air to form gaseous nitric acid and toxic organic nitrates. It is produced for commercial use in the manufacture of explosives, metal refining and fertilizers.
Nitric Oxide (NO) only lasts for 6 to 10 seconds and then converted by oxygen and water into nitrates and nitrites. Nitric oxide occurs naturally in the outer environment, from lightening, temperatures at 1000 degrees C during the combustion of fuels from engines and in the human body for the synthesis of other body functions because it is an oxidizer and a good free radical. Nitric Oxide like ozone occurs in animals, plant life and in humans as part of the natural immune system for killing bacteria and other forms of pathogens along with many other bio-chemical effects. Nitric oxide is relatively non-toxic, but at high concentrations the health effects include changes to lung function.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a colorless non-inflammable gas, with a pleasant, slightly-sweet odor. It is used in surgery and dentistry where it is commonly known as laughing gas due to the euphoric effects of inhaling it. Nitrous oxide is also used as an oxidizer in racing engines. Nitrous oxide is present in the upper atmosphere where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. It is also used in aerosol cans as a propellant for whipped cream and used in potato chips.
The corona discharge air purifiers will produce some of these nitrogen compounds the same way it does naturally in the upper environment. Using them properly will not create any bad effects. Using one improperly in a small bedroom while sleeping with the door shut and no ventilation the amount of oxygen decreases. Since there are higher nitrogen levels in the air there will be higher nitrogen compound levels produced and you may experience some of the bad health effects. Normally the lungs can absorb oxygen at higher rates from air containing ozone which may explain why it helps with allergies, bronchial, or asthma conditions. The health effects of higher gaseous oxides in the home are due to low oxygen levels and the effects will diminish in a day or two after turning down the ozone or shutting the air purifier off. Ozone produced from air with nitrogen oxides has greater bactericidal properties so some may say the benefits received outweigh the risks.
What's the difference between the nitrogen compounds found in the home compared to that in smog? Gasoline manufactured from petroleum contains more than 150 other chemical additives to improve performance. The Material Safety Data Sheet for unleaded gasoline shows at least fifteen hazardous carcinogenic chemicals occurring in various amounts from 5 to 35 percent by volume of gasoline.
Ozone can only be created from oxygen and there is no such thing as bad ozone. It is impossible to produce ozone through chemical actions of other compounds. In the past they said the ozone was formed by the ultra violet rays from the sun. There are basically four main wavelengths in the ultraviolet radiation spectrum ranging from 1000 to 3900 Angstrom units. UV-A light is in the longer wavelength from 3250 to 3900 (365 nanometers) that occurs in sunlight at ground level. UV-B light is in the middle wavelength from 2950 to 3250 (312 nanometers) and provides some germicidal action. UV-C light is in the shorter wavelength from 2000 to 2900 (253.7 nanometers) and used mainly for the destruction of bacteria. UV-D light is the shortest wavelength from 1000 to 2000 Angstrom units (185 nanometers) that produces ozone. The longer wavelengths above 253.7 nanometers will split or destroy the ozone molecules converting them back to oxygen or o2. The ozone industry uses ultra violet ozone destruct units for this purpose. So where is all this ozone at the EPA is referring to.
The short-wave ultraviolet does not occur naturally at the earths surface, because the atmosphere screens out sunlight radiation below 2950 Angstrom units. If any photochemical reactions occur and some of the short wave ultraviolet rays happen to seek through the thick brown smog haze and produced a few of the ozone molecules, the ozone would quickly oxidize the chemical pollutants and revert right back to oxygen. If this would happen on a large scale there would not be any smog.
EPA statement: Hydrocarbons are a precursor to ground-level ozone, a serious air pollutant in cities across the United States. A key component of smog, ground-level ozone is formed by reactions involving hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight. Hydrocarbon emissions result from incomplete fuel combustion and from fuel evaporation.
Applied Ozone comments: Hydrocarbons are chemical compounds that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). Hydrocarbons are combustible, the main components are from fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The most abundant hydrocarbon is methane. Some saturated hydrocarbons include methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentane. It is impossible to create ozone from carbon and hydrogen.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of over 100 different chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil and gas, garbage, or other organic substances. They are found in agricultural burn smoke, asphalt production plants, burning coal and coal tar, cigarette smoke, coking, coal-tar, creosote, crude oil, dyes, forest fires, industrial, medicines, municipal trash incineration facilities, oils, paraffin, plastics, pesticides, roofing tar, smokehouses, solvents, soot, vehicle and truck exhausts, volcanoes, waxes, wastewater treatment plants, and wood smoke. Little more ozone here could be very beneficial.
EPA statements: At ground level, ozone is a harmful pollutant. Ozone pollution is a concern during the summer months because strong sunlight and hot weather result in harmful ozone concentrations in the air we breathe. Many urban and suburban areas throughout the USA have high levels of bad ozone. But many rural areas of the country are also subject to high ozone levels as winds carry emissions hundreds of miles away from their original sources. Healthy people also experience difficulty breathing when exposed to ozone pollution. Because ozone forms in hot weather, anyone who spends time outdoors in the summer may be affected, particularly children, outdoor workers and people exercising. Millions of Americans live in areas where the national ozone health standards are exceeded.
Applied Ozone comment: Ozone is not a pollutant it destroys the bad chemical pollutants. In hot smoggy weather the air is much heavier making it harder for anyone to breath. The lack of winds or downdrafts from the upper atmosphere is what stagnants the chemical pollution over the cities and the smog pollution just sits there building up creating lower levels of oxygen. If the winds were bringing in the ozone there would not be a big cloud of haze over the city. Ozone dissipates much faster at higher temperatures with a shorter life span. Ozone is natures defense to the pollutants we create from technology.
EPA statements: How Does Bad Ozone Affect Human Health and the Environment? Breathing ozone can trigger a variety of health problems including chest pain, coughing, throat irritation, and congestion. It can worsen bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma. Bad ozone also can reduce lung function and inflame the linings of the lungs. Repeated exposure may permanently scar lung tissue. Ground-level or ozone also damages vegetation and ecosystems. It leads to reduced agricultural crop and commercial forest yields, reduced growth and survivability of tree seedlings, and increased susceptibility to diseases, pests and other stresses such as harsh weather. In the USA alone, ground-level ozone is responsible for an estimated $500 million in reduced crop production each year. Ground-level ozone also damages the foliage of trees and other plants, affecting the landscape of cities, national parks and forests, and recreation areas.
Applied Ozone comment: This statement would be true if they would remove ozone and replace it with the smog cancer causing chemical pollutants and acid rain. The health effect symptoms from MSDS state: high concentrations of ozone may cause severe irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Exposures above 0.1ppm causes mucus membranes of the mouth, nose and throat to dry but the symptoms can subside when exposure ends. Ozone always reverts back to oxygen and you can not live without it.
EPA statements: What is Happening to the Good Ozone Layer? Ozone is produced naturally in the stratosphere. But this good ozone is gradually being destroyed by man-made chemicals referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform. These substances were formerly used and sometimes still are used in coolants, foaming agents, fire extinguishers, solvents, pesticides, and aerosol propellants. Once released into the air these ozone-depleting substances degrade very slowly. In fact, they can remain intact for years as they move through the troposphere until they reach the stratosphere. There they are broken down by the intensity of the suns UV rays and release chlorine and bromine molecules, which destroy the good ozone. Scientists estimate that one chlorine atom can destroy 100,000 good ozone molecules. Research indicates that depletion of the good ozone layer is being reduced worldwide. Thinning of the protective ozone layer can be observed using satellite measurements, particularly over the Polar Regions.
Applied Ozone comment: Ozone can destroy these pollutants, they do not deplete the ozone layer. Ozone is heavier than air and if the other chemicals are heavier than air it would be hard for them to reach the outer layer. Ozone is continually being produced by the ultraviolet rays from the sun when it shines in the outer atmosphere. There is a few months out of the year that do not have sunlight over the polar regions, they are in the dark because of the angle of the sun. So naturally if there are no ultraviolet rays there will be a hole. Ozone acts 3,125 times faster than chlorine and is a 30 percent plus stronger oxidizer. It should only take 1ppm of ozone to destroy 1ppm of chlorine based compounds or other chemical pollutants. Three oxygen molecules make ozone.
Lets look at the natural cycle mother nature has provided for the production of ozone in the outer environment that continues over and over. Oxygen floats upward into the atmosphere and in turn converted into ozone by ultraviolet radiation. Since ozone is heavier than air, it is carried in natural downdrafts into the lower atmosphere. As the ozone falls from the upper atmosphere it cleans the air by oxidizing any pollutant or contaminates which it comes into contact. Being an unstable gas, ozone's life span is between 20-50 minutes so it may never reach the surface. After completing its job, it simply reverts back to oxygen. The oxygen molecule is never lost, it continues to stay the same and rise again for another cycle.
Every chemical or element has an atomic weight mass in g/mol. The weight of oxygen is 15.9 and the weight of ozone is 48. There are 7 elements lighter than oxygen: Hydrogen (1.0079), Helium (4.0026), Lithium (6.941), Beryllium (9.0122), Boron (10.811), Carbon (12.0107) and Nitrogen (14.0067). Somewhere between 15 and 48 the molecules will be too heavy and cease to rise. Chlorine weight is about 35.4 so its lighter than ozone, nitrous oxide (44), and nitric acid (63). The longer the chemical formula the more atomic weight is added. EPA states the ozone-depleting substances above also have an atomic weight. The chlorofluorocarbons, hydro-chlorofluorocarbons from Freon are heavy along with methyl bromide (94.95), carbon tetrachloride (153.82), and methyl chloroform (133.4). They all seem to be heavier than ozone, so the question is how do they rise to the upper atmosphere to deplete the ozone layer? EPA must have some newly created scientific information other than real common sense scientific information.
Why is there more smog in the summer? There is always the same amount during the winter as there is in the summer. Lets look at the Barometric Pressure or the atmospheric pressure. The higher the pressure helps drive or force more oxygen into the lungs making it easier it is to breathe. The lower the pressure is like going to higher elevations making it harder to breath. On hot days the pressure will be higher and colder days it may be lower. In the hotter days when the smog and pressure are high and there is no wind, the heat can separate the oxygen molecules into singlet making them lighter to rise higher. The pollutants from industry and exhaust fumes are forced down because they are heavier and because of the higher pressure. The oxygen levels at the surface may be between 10 and 15 instead of 21 percent. When the gas is burned in the engine with less oxygen there will be more soot with higher smog and exhaust particle levels. When the flame burns yellow there is more soot, when it burns blue it is cleaner. So with the higher pressure your body is forced to breathe in more of these bad chemical pollutants into the lungs that create the bad health effects.
Temperature also effects the dissolved oxygen concentration in pond or lake water. The hotter the water the less oxygen and the colder it is the higher the dissolved oxygen concentration. So you might be asking yourself if there is less oxygen in the air on these hot smoggy days where is the ozone. Or how does the sunlight or ultraviolet rays penetrate through the thick brown cloud of soot and particulates to make the ozone?
EPA may be basing their scientific information for the production of ozone at ground level through the photochemical reactions during sunshine from a theory done in the 1930s called the Chapman Mechanism to explain the production of ozone in the stratosphere or upper atmosphere. [Chapman, S., 1930: A theory of upper atmospheric ozone. Mem. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 3, 103–125]
The Chapman Mechanism is explained in simple terms as: Ozone in the stratosphere is produced according to the reactions when UV radiation with a very high energy hits oxygen molecules, these photolize and produce two free oxygen atoms, that, being very reactive, combine immediately with other oxygen molecules to produce ozone. This is the only known reaction actually producing ozone in the stratosphere. Ozone in the stratosphere is kept in equilibrium between production and the destructive cycles through catalytic cycles involving nitrogen, hydrogen, and chlorine-containing free radicals. When the ozone is destroyed during this destructive cycle it reverts back to oxygen to continue cycle again. This provides the mechanism through which the troposphere (lower atmosphere from ground level up to the stratosphere) and is always shielded from the high energy UV radiation.
The Chapman Mechanism is also referred to in the “Air Quality Criteria for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants” Volumes 1 to 3 (EPA/600/P-93/004af, bf and cf), July 1996, which are part of the EPA Clean Air Standards. Volume 2 covers their research on the environmental effects of ozone on plants, crops and others in test chambers. On page 5-79 it states the factors associated with Global Climate Change that have been observed or are predicted to occur are currently the subject of controversy [pg. 5-79]. And everyone believes that Al Gore was the originator of the global warming scam.
Natural concentrations of ozone in the environment can range from 0.04 to 0.06ppm. Some of their earlier studies were done at 0.25 or greater [pg. 5-241] and they used a mixture of other pollutants like SO2, NO2, and a mixture of acid rain with the ozone [pg. 5-245]. It would be hard for any plant, crop or tree to survive under these conditions. The chemicals in acid rain (sulfuric and nitric acid) are the main causes of damage, not the ozone. Other test done on oil based paints were done with O3, SO2, NO2, HNO3 and nitrous acid (HNO2) to show the damage from ozone [5-274, 279].
The scientific studies done on human and animals for the lung and respiratory effects was done with other pollutants and ozone. On humans they used a pollutant mixture of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulphuric acid (H2SO4), nitric acid (HNO3) and O3. On the animals studies they used O3, NO2 and H2SO4. [Vol. 3 pg. 9-35] Most of the testing was done at concentrations from 0.16 to 0.50 parts per million. [ pg. 9-35]
In all 3 volumes it seems only ozone is referred to as the only pollutant. In Volume 1, pg. 3-6, they assume the relatively long lifetime of ozone in the troposphere can be as long as 30 to 60 days. The fact is ozone has a short life-span of about 20 minutes and reverts back to oxygen. So they must mean the combination of the other chemical pollutants will last 30 to 60 days in the environment. The more you read out of these three volumes of BS the more disgusted you get with the EPA, the ozone gets the blame as being pollution and the real culprits just keep on polluting.
Knowing the real causes, the Air Resources Board and EPA could not outlaw gas or diesel fuel to reduce the real cause of the pollution or the other strong oxidants from other sources because this would have brought the economy to a screeching halt. So in their minds knowing ozone is one of the strongest oxidizers known to man and to help the anti-ozone industry in their quest decided to blame it on ozone because its produced naturally in the environment in the upper atmosphere. We do not need any regulations that restrict the amount or use of it. We need more laws promoting the use of it in industry. Using more oxygen and ozone in the applications of burning the fuels would create a cleaner and higher burn temperature, reduce the amount of bad omissions from the incomplete burning and raise oxygen levels. Common sense says you use the good up high to fight the bad nearby.
So its like Ed McCabe says, by calling natures oxygen smog, and diverting your attention away from the real polluters, no one has to clean up the environment! By blaming nature, the huge polluters are never forced to take responsibility for the current dirty engine designs and factories, and never have to incorporate any of the already invented clean energy sources. I am sure Ed would agree that the medical establishment may also have something to do with all the false statements.
EPA and their environmental groups argue that tighter ozone standards are needed because the asthma rate has gone up as a result of declining air quality. They also profess the ozone is detrimental to public health especially in the children by putting them at risk for lung illness and respiratory problems while ignoring the thousands of ozone testimonials from those it has helped. They also ignore the facts that these problems may be caused by pharmaceutical drugs and processed foods. Mycoplasma pneumoniae along with other mycoplasmas are common causes of upper respiratory infections, lung disease and severe asthma. Adults and children receive these free of charge in their vaccines, flu shots and dental pain killer shots. These created health problems are extremely beneficial to the medical and drug companies so again they blame ozone to help the economy.
Honeywell, Inc. and the American Lung Association have been involved in an educational partnership to promote clean indoor air since 1993. Honeywell sponsors the ALA and the ALA sponsors the new AB 2276 regulations on ozone. Letter from Randall Dodd (1-10-07) to EPA and CARB applauds their effort to restrict the sales of ozone air purifiers in the residential market. Randall is president of Clean Air Systems Inc in Bellevue, WA and a Honeywell distributor for the five western states. He wants a complete ban on portable ozone generators in occupied spaces. This would clearly increase sales for Honeywell if they get their way. Sharper Image also shows great support. Looks like some special interests going on here trying to get rid of the competition.
The American Lung Association states there are 630 premature deaths, over 4,900 hospitalizations and emergency room visits and over 4 million school absences attributed to ozone exposure each year. If this is true show us the proof and the death certificates that prove ozone is the cause. EPA and the CARB uses their scientific based information produced by scientists employed by them. So they can have any outcome they want. The latest scientific research on the air purifiers in question by CARB were tested with an ozone monitor on the highest setting from 2 inches to 2 feet from where the air and ozone is discharged. Now most reliable scientists doing research would consider if the air purifier was sized for 2,500 square feet they would place it in an area that size and test the air going into the air purifier for more accurate room concentration levels. EPA says: If used at concentrations that do not exceed public health standards, ozone applied to indoor air does not effectively remove viruses, bacteria, mold, or other biological pollutants. Well over 50 years of reliable scientific research seems to say the opposite, not that it removes them but will kill or oxidize them instead.
Whether this misinformation was done intentional or not it is your hard earned tax dollars they are spending for these inhumane actions. If ozone has helped you for any reason go to the link below and let us know. We need more laws to promote its use for the health and safety of the people. Only the power of the people can prevail here. If this is not stopped now similar laws may take effect in your state.
Its time to stop the big cover-up and 30 years of misinformation. Putting the blame for pollution on ozone is an insult on the intelligence of all the people. Applied Ozone Systems demands to be removed from their list along with the others for selling what they consider dangerous ozone air purifiers on the CA Air Resources Board web site. We the people demand all negative information on ozone be removed from all government web sites and printed material. Retract or veto this new law AB 2276 as unlawful along with revising existing laws by removing ozone as the main cause of smog. These laws are highly discreditable and discriminating not only against ozone and our creator but the people that have or that can still benefit from it. You have created a great dishonor not only to yourselves with your false statements but to all federal and state agencies. This and other acts infringes upon our Constitutional Rights and our health freedoms. We also ask the EPA and ALA to do the same and admit their mistakes to the rest of the world. If the EPA and ALA truly cares about the health and safety of the people they should stop their anti-ozone efforts and go after the true causes of pollution.
The environmentalists add ozone to the list of greenhouse gases for the Kyoto Protocol to take their interests worldwide. Global warming, more misinformation just to make others richer and for government to get more tax dollars. Because of the Clean Air Act and the so called global warming scam they come up with their scientific information to prove their points that are all based off of lies and half truths. Then they pass new and stiffer laws so they can sue the automotive manufactures and other companies for millions of dollars for not conforming. All of this misinformation is really getting out of hand, our government would work better for the people if they would stop letting the special interest groups control them and paying off the politicians who write the laws. All of this in the name of Sustainable Development?
Twenty-five billion dollars in government funding has been spent since 1990 to research global warming. If scientists and researchers were coming out releasing reports that global warming has little to do with man, and most to do with just how the planet works, there would not be as much money to study it. One Harvard astrophysicist says added carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may actually benefit the world because more CO2 helps plants grow. Warmer winters would give farmers a longer harvest season which could lower prices.
One recent report commissioned by the California EPA done by University of Calif. researchers estimate that in 2004, 200,000 California workers suffered from chronic diseases linked to workplace exposure to industrial chemicals and 4,400 people died of these diseases including cancer, emphysema and Parkinson's disease. In there 2007 report they found that low-level synthetic chemicals can disrupt the natural development of infants and children. It would be nice if the EPA would work in banning these chemicals that really cause harm instead of wasting so much time and taxpayer dollars on ozone.
So what else is EPA up to? Recently I was sent the following article posted on the internet. If anyone can back this up I would like to know if it is true.
The Environmental Protection Agency is seeking to classify water vapor as a pollutant, due to its central role in global warming. Because water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere, accounting for at least 90% of the Earth and natural greenhouse effect, its emission during many human activities, such as the burning of fuels, is coming under increasing scrutiny by federal regulators. Just think of paying a fine every time you water your lawn.
Just recently EPA listed natural ultra violet rays from the sun as being cancer causing to cover up the real causes of skin cancer. They have passed new laws against the off road engines in forklifts, bull dozers and other heavy equipment used in all construction work. They are trying to get the trucking industry to replace the dual tires with single tires and side shirks over them to cut down on wind resistance. They want all the light bulbs replaced with fluoresce bulbs that contain mercury and want to control HVAC thermostats to save energy. In and around Sacramento county you can not burn wood in your fireplace. All because of the global warming scam that has not been proven and all based off of bogus information. Another article says they are looking for companies where we will be paying our carbon credits fines to.
Three government agencies regulate ozone in air, the EPA (regulates ambient air outdoors that we humans breathe). Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the Dept. of Labor regulates the workplace environments for people who work 8 hrs/day, 5-days per week). FDA regulates indoor air quality for (medical device only) persons who may be confined indoors 24 hrs/day, 7 days/week, 365 days/yr. None have the power to regulate the air within your home.
On Sept. 27, 2007 CARB news release headline says California cleans up indoor air cleaners and goes on saying they have adopted the nations first regulation to prohibit indoor air cleaners from emitting more than 0.050 parts per million. In the latest CARB news release, they state ozone can kill microbes in the air but only at concentrations roughly 100 times greater than the amount allowable by this regulation which is 5 ppm. This concentration is pretty high and used in wastewater treatment which can oxidize most contaminates in a short time. The article goes on stating more flat out lies. Another article in the Sacramento Bee on Sept.29, 2007 headline says Board bans ozone air purifiers.
In the first paragraph of the Pavley bill AB2276 they mention they have to get a preemption waiver from the federal government to authorize the state to adopt regulations that are more stringent than federal law which has been turned down recently. CARB jurisdiction only pertains to the outside air and not ones private air within the home. There isn't anything in the Clean Air Act about regulating ozone air purifiers within your home.
If you look at their web site closely you can find all the companies they have taken to court and fined, some for $100,000 or more. So is this one of the main reasons for passing all these crazy laws just to protect the children or hit those in violation with fines to fill their coffers?
CARB Case Settlement Actions
CARB News Release
Read the latest comments on the CARB filings.
Study Finds No Asthma Link
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